Security Schemes


Access to the EnOS service APIs and portal require authentication. EnOS provides integration with customers’ user registries that supports LDAP, such as the Windows Directory Server. EnOS uses several types of credentials for authentication. These include 1) passwords, 2) cryptographic keys, 3) digital signatures, and 4) certificates. EnOS also provides the option of requiring 5) multi-factor authentication (MFA) to log in to the portal.


Passwords are required to access the EnOS portal. If the customer’s organizational user registry is not used for authentication, customers may specify the password when they first create the account, and they can change it at any time. Password complexity policy may be applied to force users to create strong passwords that cannot be easily guessed.

Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)

MFA is an additional layer of security for accessing the EnOS portal. When this optional feature is enabled, users will be prompted to provide a six-digit single-use code in addition to the user name and password credentials before access is granted. The user will receive this single-use code via SMS or email.

Access Keys

EnOS requires that all API requests be signed — that is, they must include a digital signature that the platform can use to verify the identity of the requestor. Application developers calculate the digital signature using a cryptographic hash function. The input to the hash function in this case includes the text of the request and the secret access key.

Not only does the signing process help protect message integrity by preventing tampering with the request while it is in transit, it also helps protect against potential replay attacks. A request must reach the EnOS services within 15 minutes of the time stamp in the request. Otherwise, the platform denies the request.

Key Pairs

Virtual machine instances are created with a public/private key pair rather than a password for signing in via Secure Shell (SSH). The public key is embedded in the virtual machine instance, and users use the private key to sign in securely without a password.

X.509 Certificates

X.509 certificates are used to sign SOAP-based requests. X.509 certificates contain a public key and additional metadata (an expiration date that EnOS verifies when applications upload the certificate, for example), and is associated with a private key. When an application creates a request, it creates a digital signature with the private key and then include that signature in the request, along with the certificate. The EnOS verifies the sender by decrypting the signature with the public key that is in the certificate. The platform also verifies that the certificate the application sent matches the certificate that is uploaded.

Certificate Authority (CA)

EnOS has a built-in industry-standard CA service for certificate management purpose. It provides a series of fundamental CA service APIs, including CA setup, certificate issue, certificate renew, certificate revoke, and certificate status query. Certificates for different purposes may be requested and issued from the EnOS CA service and the corresponding operation may be completed through API invoke in seconds. Both CRL distribution and OSCP stapling with high availability is supported.

Role-based Access Control (RBAC)

EnOS adopts the RBAC, a policy neutral access control mechanism defined around roles and privileges. Access control rule is defined as a 3-tuples in the form of role-permission-resource.

Within an organization, roles are created for various job functions. The permissions to perform certain operations are assigned to specific roles. Members or staff (or other system users) are assigned particular roles, and, through these role assignments, acquire the computer permissions to perform specific computer-system functions. Since users are not assigned permissions directly, but only acquire them through their role (or roles), management of individual user rights becomes a matter of simply assigning appropriate roles to the user’s account. This simplifies common operations, such as adding a user, or changing a user’s department.

Network Protection

For greater communication security when accessing EnOS portal, devices and end users must use HTTPS for data transmissions. HTTPS uses the SSL/TLS protocol, which uses public-key cryptography to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and forgery. Public trusted CA-issued web server certificates should be deployed to enable this feature.

All EnOS services provide API endpoints that allow devices and end users to establish secured communication sessions. For RESTful APIs, HTTPS is used. For SSL/TLS protected data channel between devices and EnOS cloud cluster, X.509 certification based bi-directional authentication is adopted, and all data is encrypted during the transfer.

Data Encryption

EnOS adopts a very strict way for protecting data at rest. Sensitive data is encrypted before putting into files or databases. Data is encrypted with a key generated by the platform or with a key that the customers supply. Decryption happens automatically when data is retrieved through the platform API. Therefore, no intruders or platform operators will have access to the data even when they have access to the underlying file system or database systems, unless they have obtained the decryption keys.

Logging and Monitoring

EnOS logs all user activities to the portal that the application invokes to the service APIs. The access log contains details about each access request including the request type, the requested resource, the requestor’s IP, and the time and date of the request.

The EnOS operation team not only monitors the cloud application performance and resiliency, but also platform security. Centralized logging service is configured to aggregate access logs and display security related metrics at real-time to the operation team. Alerts are also configured to be raised when the defined thresholds are met. Based on real-time monitoring and alerts, the operation team can react to security attacks and leaks very quickly.


The EnOS security team periodically audits internal activities from the software development team and the service operation team to ensure that the IT process meets the standard. In addition, EnOS provides customers with user activity logs associated with their applications and users. Customers can use these logs to decide whether users are assigned properly to roles and what kind of activities a particular user has performed.